G20 meetings & climate pledges
G20 nations cause 76% of global greenhouse gas emissions; only half those emissions are covered by ambitious pledges to cut them, under the Paris Agreement. G20 leaders could get the world on track for COP26 to deliver on the Paris Agreement commitment, and keep 1.5° alive.
- G20 Finance Ministers could work to ensure delivery of wealthy nations’ promise of $100bn a year to support climate action and adaptation, to minimise the risk of undermining trust ahead of COP26.
- G20 nations with weak targets, like Australia, will be expected to commit to net zero and end reliance on, and export, of fossil fuels.
- China, the world’s biggest emitter, can lead the way with an ambitious new emissions pledge well ahead of COP26.
What are the G20 ministerial meetings?
Why do G20 nations matter to keep 1.5°C alive at COP26?
As the world faces unprecedented and extreme temperatures, driven by climate change, COP26 has a huge job to keep the ambition of the Paris Agreement within reach – to keep 1.5°C alive.
Most countries have yet to up the ambition of their climate action plans before they meet in Glasgow. Delivering that ambition means committing to:
- Real plans for fast, deep cuts in emissions, in line with the science, to get to net zero by the middle of this century;
- Real money to help poorer nations adapt to & pay for loss and damage from climate impacts; and
- Real action to end fossil fuel use, deforestation & the most dangerous greenhouse gases.
What are the different stances of G20 nations?
G20 nations could close these gaps. Some have ambitious targets and generous commitments on climate finance. Others have enhanced targets, and are closer to the ambition needed. But some have done, and continue to do, relatively little.
Amongst developed countries, Australia stands out as an outlier. A wealthy nation with higher per-capita emissions than the US, it also has higher emissions than the UK, despite a population half the size. It is the world’s largest exporter of coal, and of liquefied natural gas (LNG), has weak emissions targets and has repeatedly refused to commit to a date for net-zero. All this despite facing devastation from huge wildfires in recent years, and being custodians of the threatened Great Barrier Reef, worth billions to the Australian economy.
There are developing nations in the G20 who have yet to enhance their targets, or to enhance them by enough. But they, and many poorer nations, have made the point that they need financial assistance from wealthier countries, not just for climate action, but also to adapt to climate impacts. Wealthy nations are therefore expected to step up and deliver on their overdue promise of $100bn a year by 2020; failure to so not only limits what developing nations can afford to do, but also risks undermining trust, which would make the job to be done at COP26 in Glasgow much, much harder.
And of course, there are the biggest emitters. China accounts for upwards of a quarter of global emissions. They have committed to get to net zero by 2060, to peak emissions by 2030, and to start to reduce use of coal after 2025. But they continue to invest in coal, and their emissions still grow sharply. A strong emissions pledge from China, well before COP26, would be a significant act of leadership from the world’s biggest emitter to bring others along too.
The G20 also includes those who not only take very little action and make weak commitments, but also have been actively unhelpful when it comes to COP negotiations. Saudi Arabia, Russia and Brazil, for instance, often take blocking or delaying positions in negotiations, along with Australia and others. Brazil is another nation which, whilst having inadequate targets, is also custodian of a critically important biome in the form of the Amazon rainforests, a huge climate sink and home to 10% of the world’s wildlife species that we know about, which has also seen devastating and unprecedented wildfires in recent years.
As G20 Ministers meet in the coming weeks, all eyes will be on the G20 chair, Italy, and their COP26 co-host the United Kingdom, to see whether they can put pressure on all G20 nations to step up and deliver.
Upcoming G20 Meetings
Finance Ministers & Central Bank Governors: 9/10 July
Venice conference on climate: 11 July
Environment Ministers: 22 July
Climate & Energy Ministers: 23 July
Culture Ministers: 29/30 July
Digital Economy & Research Ministers: 5/6 August
Health Ministers: 5/6 September
Agriculture Ministers: 17/18 September
Trade Ministers: 12 October
Finance Ministers & Central Bank Governors: 15/16 October
Joint Finance & Health Ministers: 29/30 October
G20 Leaders’ Summit: 30/31 October